Pine Bedding References
There is ample support for the use of pine in general and more enthusiastic support for "kiln-dried" pine everywhere. This is a list of references and sources on the potential dangers of pine (and cedar).
Ducommun, Debbie, The Toxicity of Pine and Cedar Shavings.
Ducommun, Debbie, Cage Hygiene, Healthy Litters, and Beddings
The Use of Cedar as a Substrate News from the North Bay, April 1994, 1(4):9
American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association, Cedar and Pine Shavings are Toxic to ALL Small Animals! October 1993.
TeSelle, Elizabeth R., The Problem with Pine: A Discussion of Softwood Beddings.
Harriman, Marinell, Litterboxes and Liver Disease (In consultation with Marliss Geissler, DVM, and Carolynn Harvey, DVM).
Johnston, Jeff, Respiratory Toxicity of Cedar and Pine Wood.
Seagull's Why Not Cedar?
Wood Beddings and the Danger of Phenols
Wood Shavings The problem with cedar and pine shavings as pet bedding and litter.
List compiled by Alicia Gangi of RodentFancy.
Odynets, A. et al., "Beddings for Laboratory Animals: Criteria of Biological Evaluation." Lab. Zyhvotnye, 1 (3) p. 70-6 (1991)
Vesell, Elliot S., "Induction of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Liver Microsomes of Mice and Rats by Softwood Bedding." Science, 157 p. 1057-8 (1967)
Weichbrod, Robert H. et al, "Effects of Cage Beddings on Microsomal Oxidative Enzymes in Rat Liver." Laboratory Animal Science, 38 (3) p. 296-8 (1988)
Vaughan, T.L. and S. Davis, "Wood Dust Exposure and Squamous Cell Cancers of the Upper Respiratory Tract." American Journal of Epidemiology, 133 (6), p. 560-4 (1991)
Harriman, Marinell, "Litterboxes and Liver Disease." House Rabbit Journal, I (12) p.8-9 (1989)
Ayars GH, et al., "The toxicity of constituents of cedar and pine woods to pulmonary epithelium." J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989 Mar;83(3):610-8.
Burek JD, Schwetz BA, "Considerations in the selection and use of chemicals within the animal facility." Lab Anim Sci 1980 Apr;30(2 Pt 2):414-21
Ayars GH, Altman LC, Frazier CE, Chi EY, "The toxicity of constituents of cedar and pine woods to pulmonary epithelium." J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989 Mar;83(3):610-8 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.
Chan-Yeung M., Desjardins A., "Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and level of exposure in occupational asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata)." Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;146:1606-9.
Chan-Yeung M, MacLean L, Paggiaro PL., "Follow-up study of 232 patients with occupational asthma caused by western red cedar (Thuja plicata)." J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;79:792-6.
Hausen BM, Kreuger A, Mohnert J, Hahn H, Konig WA. "Contact allergy due to colophony (III). Sensitizing potency of resin acids and some related products." Contact Dermatitis 1989;20:41-50. Comments: Contact Dermatitis 1989;21:282-5.
Salari H, Howard S, Chan H, Dryden P, Chan-Yeung M. "Involvement of immunologic mechanisms in a guinea model of western red cedar asthma." J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;93:877-84.
Pelkonen KH, et al., "Cytotoxicity and biotransformation inducing activity of rodent beddings: a global survey using the Hepa-1 assay." Toxicology. 1997 Sep 26;122(1-2):73-80.
------ Below are some additional references from Seagull's Bedding FAQ
FJ Potgieter, R.Torronen & P.I. Wilke, "Enzyme-inducing and cycotoxic
properties of bedding and nesting materials", Life Sci, 1989 Vol. 45 P 559-565
Shoental, R. "Carcinogenicity of wood shavings". Lab. Animal 1973, Vol 7. P 47-49
Local Pet Store Chain Changes Bedding Policy
After feedback from customers (Pet Food Express, San Francisco Bay Area)
A Letter to our Customers
By M. Levy
In an effort to supply you with the highest quality and safest products for your pets, we at Pet Food Express would like to inform you of an upcoming product change.
Wood products with aromatic oils have been conclusively shown to cause liver damage and early death in small animals. Therefore, we will no longer be selling pine and cedar shavings. It is the aromatic oils in these shavings that trigger this reaction. Wood, such as Aspen, is still a safe alternative. We also have a wood pulp product, Care Fresh, and a kiln-dried product, New Concepts. Both products work great for odor control and protect the safety of your small friends. Alternatives from wood are grain-based products. Smart Litter's Organic n Safe, Kay Cob, Walnut Shell, Critter Country, and Cat Country will work well in cages.
It is our desire to see that you enjoy the company of your furry critter for as long as possible. As of August 1, 2001 pine and cedar shaving will no longer be available through Pet Food Express, or PetFoodExpress.com. The 5cu compressed bale of pine and cedar will still be available for use in dog beds.
We look forward to serving you in the future. If you have any questions, email Michael Levy. Michael Levy is the President and Founder of Pet Food Express."
Thank you to The Rat Fan Club for providing a number of links, and Alicia Gangi of RodentFancy for providing the list of publications.